Ovarian Cyst Treatment - Quick Facts

Ovarian cyst treatments are not required for all cysts, but some cysts can be dangerous. Establishing the cause of the ovarian cyst is critical!

Hello!

This is Dr Manu!. Consultant Gynecologist in Chennai and in this quick article, you are going to learn about the ovarian cyst and ovarian cyst treatment. 

So the good news is that, most ovarian cyst are nothing but a simple fluid filled sacs that are usually symptom less. Interestingly, ovarian cysts seems to occur and vanish on its own without any active ovarian cyst treatment as such!.

So where do these cysts occur?

The ovarian cysts occurs in the ovaries that are 2 small oval or bean shaped organs that play 2 cardinal roles in a women’s reproductive health

A. The ovary is the site of egg production. 1 egg is usually released in middle of a 28 day cycle

B. Secondly, they are site of production of the female sex hormones mainly estrogen and progesterone, both of which play major roles in reproduction

Ovarian cyst symptoms

What is very interesting is that, ovarian cysts do not necessarily cause any symptoms until or unless they are very large. A very large ovarian cyst can sometimes block the blood supply to the ovaries completely. 

In such instances, patients may experience

A. Severe pelvic pain

B. Severe pain during sexual intercourse

C. Urinary urgency

D. Heavy irregular periods

E. Bloating and fullness

If you have a sudden and severe pain, you must contact your gynecologist immediately without any delay! This is especially more so, if you have a history of ovarian cysts.

Ovarian cyst types

From a clinical perspective we classify ovarian cysts into two main types

A. Pathological cysts 

These include cysts like 

1. Dermoid cysts

2. Cystadenoma (this can be serous or mucinous subtypes)

3. Endometrioma

4. Hemorrhagic cysts

5. Lastly, benign epithelial cysts

Ovarian cyst treatment strategies of course need to be individualized to the patient and of course the underlying causal factors.

B. Functional Cysts

Interestingly, functional cysts develop normally as a part of the menstrual cycle. The good news is that, they are harmless and require no major treatment as such.

A large number of cysts are largely benign in nature (non-cancerous). However, once must bear in mind that a small proportion of ovarian cysts can be cancerous. This is especially true if your age is more than 45-50 years and if your cycle has stopped!. 

Diagnoses and Treatment

The diagnosis of ovarian cysts are usually done with a simple ultrasound examination. Blood tests are additionally prescribed depending on the patients age and individual clinical history. 

ovarian cyst treatment

Small functional cysts may spontaneously disappear with careful wait and watch based strategies. Some other cysts may require oral contraceptive pills to set right.

For larger cysts, your gynecologist will usually advice a diagnostic laparoscopy. This helps in two ways

1. In confirming and establishing the preliminary diagnosis of the cyst 

2. The cyst can also be removed during the actual laparoscopy procedure

In the context of fertility treatments, were the patient has not yet actually completed her family, a conservative approach to cyst removal is recommended. 

This usually means removing only the cyst despite its size and position, while leaving all the reproductive organs intact. 

Laparoscopy is a basic keyhole surgery that is a well established clinical technique to treat ovarian cysts. 

Sometimes, in case of large cysts with adhesion’s, the laparoscopy procedure will be converted to laparotomy to aid the removal.

To summarize ovarian cysts treatment can be outlines as below

a. Watchful waiting and follow up (this is also called expectant management)

b. Oral contraceptive pills

c. Diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy combined with tissue biopsy

d. Laparotomy where required

I hope you enjoyed reading this short article on ovarian cyst treatment. Please do share this article with all your friends and and loved ones!

References:-

  1. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/ovarian-cyst/treatment/
  2. Eltabbakh GH, Charboneau AM, Eltabbakh NG. Laparoscopic surgery for large benign ovarian cysts. Gynecologic Oncology. 2008 Jan 1;108(1):72-6.
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